- Omega-3 LC-PUFA has been shown in a number of clinical studies to help reduce joint discomfort and stiffness1.
- In a critical examination of 14 clinical trials in patients with rheumatoid arthritis or joint pain, supplementation with omega-3 LC-PUFA resulted in a decrease in joint pain intensity, duration of morning stiffness, the number painful and tender joints and the use of pain relief medication2.
- In a clinical study conducted a Harvard University with patients having retinitis pigmentosa, supplementation with DHA (a component of omega-3 LC-PUFA) along with vitamin A started at the same time had a stronger protective effect again vision loss than vitamin A taken alone3.
- Clinical studies show that DHA, a component of omega-3 LC-PUFA, plays a vital role in the optimum function of the retina4.
- Human population-based studies have shown that a high intake of omega-3 LC-PUFA is associated with 40% reduced risk of age related macular degeneration (AMD) but this finding has not yet been confirmed in a in clinical intervention study5.
- In a human clinical study 120 women aged 40-55 with an average of 2.8 hot flashes/day were given omega-3 LC PUFA or placebo for 8 weeks. The omega-3 group experienced a statistically significant decline of 1.58 hot flashes/day compared to a decline of 0.5 hot flashes/day in the placebo group6.
- Based on numerous clinical studies, omega-3 LC-PUFA are widely recommended to keep the heart and blood vessels in good condition7,8.
- A critical review of clinical studies conducted at prestigious medical schools showed that omega-3 LC-PUFA can reduce heart rate9.
- Numerous high quality clinical studies show that omega-3 LC-PUFA significantly lower blood triglycerides, a risk factor for heart disease10.
- Omega-3 LC-PUFA also increases HDL-cholesterol, the good cholesterol, and improves the ratio of LDL-cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol, a beneficial change11.
- A critical review of numerous clinical studies which studied the role of omega-3 LC-PUFA on blood pressure concluded that a significant reduction in blood pressure was seen in hypertensive subjects who consumed a high level of omega-3 LC-PUFA12.
- In a large Italian clinical study, previous heart attack patients receiving omega-3 LC PUFA experienced a 20% reduction in total mortality, a 30% reduction in cardiovascular death, and a 45% reduction in sudden death at 3.5 years13,14.
- Following weaning from breast milk, omega-3, LC-PUFA supplementation of infant formula (6 - 52 weeks of age) resulted in improved visual acuity in infants15.
- Omega-3 LC-PUFA supplementation of infants (5 - 17 weeks of age) also improved cognitive development, as indicated by an improved scores for memory, problem-solving and discrimination at 18 months of age16.
- Two clinical studies with school children showed that supplementation with omega-3 LC PUFA over 8 and 12 weeks significantly improved behavior in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)17,18.
- In a clinical trial with older women the women given a combination of DHA (a component of omega-3 LC PUFA) and lutein scored significantly better on a verbal fluency test than women on placebo19.
- Omega-3 LC PUFA given to postmenopausal women over 18 months significantly increased bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and femoral neck bones compared to placebo20.
- Cleland LG et. al. The role of fish oils in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Drugs. 2003;63(9):835-53.
- Goldberg RJ et. al. A meta-analysis of the analgesic effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation for inflammatory joint pain. Pain 2007;129(1-2);210-23.
- Berson EL et. al Further evaluation of docosahexaenoic acid in patients with retinitis pigmentosa receiving vitamin A treatment: subgroup analyses. Archives of Ophthalmology 2004;122(9):1306-14.
- Chua B et. al. Dietary fatty acids and the 5-year age-related maculopathy. Archives of Opththalmology 2006;124(7):981-6.
- Chong EW et. al. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids and fish intake in the primary prevention of age-related macular degeneration:a systematic review and meta-analysis. Archives of Ophthalmology 2001;126(6):826.33.
- Lucas M et. al. Effects of ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on hot flashes and quality of life among middle-aged women: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Menopause 2009;16(2):347-66.
- Lavie CJ et.al. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2009;54(7):585-94.
- Deckelbaum RJ et. al. Conclusions and recommendations for the symposium, Beyond Cholesterol: Prevention and Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease with n-3 fatty acids. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2008. 87:6:2010s-2s.
- Mozaffavian D. Effect of fish oil on heart rate in humans: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Circulation 2005;112(13):1945-52.
- Jacobson TA. Role of n-3 fatty acid in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia and cardiovascular disease. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2008;87(6):1981sw-90s.
- Balk EM et.al. Effects of omega-32 fatty acids on serum markers of cardiovascular disease risk: A systemic review. Atherosclerosis 2006;189:19-30.
- Morris MC et. al. Does fish oil lower blood pressure? A meta-analysis of controlled trials. Circulation 1993;88(2):523-33.
- Marchioli R et. al. Early protection against sudden death by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids after myocardial infarction; time course analysis of the results of the Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell’ Infarty Miocardio (GISSI) – Prevenzione. Circulation 2002;105(6):1897-903.
- Marchioli R et. al. Antiarrhythmic mechanism of n-3 PUFA and the results of the GISSI – Prevenzione trial. Journal of Membrane Biology 2005;206(2);177-28.
- Birch EE et al. (2002) A randomized controlled trial of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation of formula in term infants after weaning at 6 wk of age. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 75: 570-580.
- Birch EE et al.(2000) A randomized controlled trial of early dietary supply of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and mental development in term infants. Developmental Medical Child Neurology, 42:174-181.
- Sorgi et al. Effects of an open-label pilot study with high-dose EPA/DHA concentrates on plasma phospholipids and behavior in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Nutrition Journal2007;6:16.
- Richardson and Montgomery. The Oxford-Durham Study: A randomized, controlled trial of dietary supplementation with fatty acids in children with developmental coordination disorder. Pediatrics 2005;115:1360-1366.
- Johnson et al. Cognitive findings of an exploratory trial of docosahexaenoic acid and lutein supplementation in older women. Nutritional Neuroscience 2008;11(2):75-83.
- Kruger et. al. Calcium, gamma-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid in senile osteoporosis. Aging Clinical Experimental Research 1998;10(5):385-94.